Adhesive application systems
Systems to apply adhesive / glue.
The tool for applying adhesive.
Describes the physical properties of the adhesive and its resistance to flow. In this context it means how easily it will flow.
Suspension of fine liquid or solid particles in a gas. Cigarette smoke is an example of an aerosol, with a high concentration of particles, vapours and gases in air.
Advanced Flavour Application system. A third generation flavour application system manufactured by Kaymich.
The system used when a liquid contains particles within suspension, to ensure a homogenous (consistent) mix of liquids and prevent ingredients from separating out over time.
One of the main types of blended cigarettes which are made with a mixture of tobacco varieties. The most popular of the blended cigarettes, these are made with a mixture of flue-cured, burley, and oriental tobacco.
The adhesive line used to bond the filter tow to the filter paper internally, to prevent fall out (detachment) during the manufacturing process or usage. See also: Tow retention and Tow security.
Aqueous dispersion adhesive
Water based dispersion adhesives consist of solid adhesive dispersed in an aqueous phase. These adhesives contain water soluble additives such as surfactants, emulsifiers, and protective colloids that act as links between the solid adhesive particles and the aqueous phase. They prevent the adhesive particles from sticking together and separating during storage. Upon drying, these additives evaporate or are absorbed into the adhesive. In order to obtain optimum strength and performance, the adhesive must be completely dry. Small amounts of residual moisture combined with residual water soluble additives weaken the film and lower the resistance to moisture and water.
Aromatic materials added to tobacco to balance the natural tobacco taste and to give brands their characteristic flavour and aroma. See also Flavour/Flavourings.
Atomise / Atomisation
Convert a liquid into a very fine mist.
Bar is the atmospheric pressure at sea level and is equal to 100 000 Pascals (Pa) or 100 kilopascals (kPa). 1 Psi = 0.0689475729 Bar. Psi is defined as 1 pound of force per square inch. 1 pound per square inch (psi) is equal to 6 894.75729 pascals.
In this context, the conversion of a specific amount of solid into a liquid via heating.
The tobacco leaf that holds the filler together in a cigar and gives the cigar its shape. In some cases the binder may be covered by another tobacco leaf called a top binder. The binder or top binder is then covered by the wrapper resulting in a finished cigar.
A mixture of individual tobacco grades. All tobaccos found in commercial cigarettes are blends. As well as tobacco grades, blends may contain a number of other minor component ingredients such as plant protection agents and migration chemicals.
Mixing different varieties and grades of tobacco in order to produce a predetermined, uniform blend that meets a customer's specifications of quality, flavour, and aroma. The tobaccos are blended according to specific formulas or recipes that dictate the percentage of each type and grade to be used.
In this context, the seepage of glue or flavour from one side of the paper to the other causing contamination to the production line.
The machine used to box cigarette packs into cartons. Sometimes called a cartoner.
An alternative name for Virginia tobacco.
Bulk melt system
A system used to batch melt or heat substances like menthol from solid form to their liquid form, to prepare them for application within a manufacturing process.
The final stage of cigarette manufacture is packaging. The completed cigarettes are usually packed 20 to a package although numbers per pack can vary. Cigarettes are configured into a set quantity (20) wrapped with tissue backed foil into a bundle before placing into a pack.
Carbide tipped nozzle
A nozzle, usually stainless steel coated with carbide to improve resistence to wear. These give the ultimate durability and performance.
Tobacco additives are applied to improve moisture retention and smoking ability; casing is the process of applying these additives to tobacco. A mixture of hygroscopic agents and/or plasticising agents and volatile or non-volatile flavouring agents applied to tobacco to condition it for processing (to reduce breakage, facilitate cutting, etc). Some commonly known flavouring agents are: cocoa, chocolate, liquorice, ginger, cinnamon, vanilla, molasses, rum, brandy, maple syrup, certain esters and oils, honey, and sugar. See also: Top flavourings.
A white, odourless, tasteless, nontoxic solid used for making cigarette filters. Cellulose acetate, also known as secondary acetate, is a partially acetylated cellulose, having an average degree of substitution of 2.4 acetyl groups per glucose unit.
A measure of viscosity.
Cigarette Flavour Application system. First generation model of the Kaymich Flavour Application System sold globally in the 1990's. See also: FDU.
The approach of combining different cigarette elements (such as the tobacco blend, cigarette paper, filter, and tipping) to meet the required sensory characteristics and machine determined smoke yields.
Cigarettes are generally made by wrapping cut, dried tobacco in paper to form a cylindrically shaped product with a seam that runs the entire length of the cigarette. An adhesive is used to secure this longitudinal seam. If the cigarette has a filter, then an adhesive is also used both to form the filter and to secure the filter to the paper.
The wrapping surrounding the cigarette rod. See also: Plug wrap, Tipping paper.
The combined form of shredded and blended tobacco wrapped in cigarette paper.
Cigarette side seam system - gravity fed
A system designed to apply adhesive (glue) to the side seam of a cigarette. The adhesive is fed under gravity from a tank to the applicator. The paper draws the adhesive from the applicator as a result of the Venturi Effect, the paper moving past the nozzle causing a vacuum.
Cigarette side seam system - pump fed
A system designed to apply adhesive (glue) to the side seam of a cigarette. The adhesive is fed by a pump from a tank to the applicator. The system uses a speed signal fed back from the host maker to deliver an exact amount of adhesive per cigarette or per metre proportional to the maker speed.
The dimensions of a finished cigarette. The circumference of most cigarettes is approximately 25 mm. The length varies greatly. A Regular cigarette is 70 mm, King-Size is 85 mm, Super King-Size or 100 is 100 mm and Longs or 120’s are 120 mm.
In this context, areas of a heated system not achieving or meeting target temperature.
CORESTA “Centre de Coopération pour les Recherches Scientifiques Relatives au Tabac” (Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco). CORESTA is an association whose purpose is to promote international cooperation in scientific research relative to tobacco.
A Coresta unit is a measure of cigarette paper permeability, defined as the flow (cm3 min-1) passing through a 1 cm2 sample of test material at an applied pressure of 1.00 kPa.
Cigarettes per minute. Refers to the speed of the maker.
Also called a hinge lid packer (HLP): one of several types of packing machines that bundle cigarettes into packs of twenty. The packs produced by this packer have hinge-top lids.
The process of collecting and storing data over a period of time to analyse results.
DIET (sometimes referred to as expanded tobacco)
Dry Ice Expanded Tobacco is where the volume of cut leaf tobacco is expanded through treatment with carbon dioxide.
Direct conditioning cylinder (DCC)
The DCC moistens and heats tobacco, opening its pores so it can more readily accept casing.
Side flaps on a standard hinge lid packet blank (cigarette pack).
Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs or Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), are typically cigarette-shaped, battery-powered, electronic devices that produce an aerosol which users inhale. These products are used by cigarette smokers as a substitute for the experience of smoking tobacco. There is no combustion so the user inhales vapour, not smoke and although the nicotine is derived from tobacco, e-cigarettes contain no actual tobacco.
FDA - Food & Drug Administration
The US regulatory agency which has an oversight role on food and pharmaceuticals. The tobacco industry lives in dread of tobacco being classified as an addictive drug which would bring it under FDA control.
Flavour Dispensing System.
Contributes to the bulk of the product without contributing significantly to odour, taste, flavour or aroma.
Any air permeable substance (e.g. paper, cotton, cork, silica gel, meerschaum, cellulose acetate, etc.) attached to the user end of a cigarette. Paper and cellulose acetate are in most common use today, often in conjunction with charcoal. The paper and cellulose acetate help reduce particulate matter; the charcoal adsorbs portions of the gaseous phase of the smoke. Filters are made in varying densities, diameters, and designs.
Attaches the tipping paper to the filter and tobacco rod.
Filter overwrap/plug wrap
A special paper wrapper put around the filter to hold it together during manufacture.
The purpose of the cigarette filter rod is to reduce the amount of smoke, tar and fine particles inhaled when consuming (smoking) a cigarette. The filter material used is usually mono-acetate tow. Other materials such as charcoal can be combined to increase the filtration quality of the filter.
Filter rod adhesive application system
The system used to create a fast bond using a minimum amount of adhesive, designed to apply hot melt and PVA adhesives to the filter plug paper.
Filter spray tow retention system
A unique system applying a swirl pattern of adhesive to the paper on-line on the filter maker. The adhesive is positioned to secure the filter plug or plugs to the filter paper; the pattern applied ensures a wide coverage of adhesive from a single line, maximising retention.
A bundle of continuous filaments used to produce cigarette filters, commonly made of cellulose acetate. See also: Tow.
The filter material reduces the amount of smoke constituents, such as tar and nicotine, as tobacco smoke passes through it. The most common filtration material used is cellulose acetate fibre. Plasticisers are added to bind the fibres together to form the filter. Some brands have charcoal in their filters. This charcoal removes certain volatile chemicals from the tobacco smoke.
The temperature at which a particular organic compound gives off sufficient vapour to ignite in air.
Flavour application systems
Mechanisms for applying different flavour onto or into other substances.
A liquid mixture made of chemicals and extracts used to flavour cigarettes. Different brands use different flavouring concentrate recipes.
Aromatic materials added to tobacco to balance the natural tobacco taste and to give brands their characteristic flavour and aroma. See also: Aroma.
Flavour ingredients, such as cocoa, sugars and menthol, that give cigarettes a unique taste. See also: Aroma.
The mechanism that regulates the flow or pressure of liquid.
Usually a laminate of aluminium foil and paper used to encase cigarettes within the cigarette pack. Certified as food grade, the foil comes in different weights and widths according to pack and/or bundle size.
A system for un-winding and re-winding a bobbin of foil to allow the application of flavour. See also: Rewind unit.
Ingredients that help to improve the manufacturing process, such as cellulose which is used to give strength to reconstituted tobacco sheets.
The area of the cigarette making machine where the tobacco rod is formed, combining tobacco and paper.
This is used in a cigarette making machine for tobacco rod forming purposes.
New generation flavour application system. Suitable for hot or cold flavours, application either onto the paper into the tobacco on the cigarette rod maker, into the tow on the filter maker or onto foil on a re-wind unit.
Generic term for adhesive applicator.
Gravity fed hot melt system
A system to apply hot melt adhesive and PVA adhesive during the making of filter rods.
Gravity fed/gravity feed
In this context, this refers to the supply of adhesive to an applicator, from a reservoir or tank, using gravity.
GUI Graphical User Interface
This is the digital user interface shown on the Human Machine Interface (HMI).
Lessening the harm associated with risk taking behaviour without complete abstinence from the behaviour.
Technology that generates a smokable aerosol through heating rather than burning tobacco and/or other smoking materials.
Hinge lid packer (HLP)
See: Crushproof packer.
Hot melt adhesive
Also known as Hot Glue, this is a form of thermoplastic adhesive applied hot in a liquid form which sets upon cooling. The advantage of this type of adhesive is that it forms a bond quickly where the two substrates to be glued do not naturally hold the form required. In the cigarette industry typical uses are for the side seam of the filter rod and in packing.
Hot melt charring
Particles of hot melt adhesive which have exceeded recommended temperature and carbonised to form lumps in the adhesive. These are a common cause of rod break-out in filter making.
Human machine interface (HMI)
The monitor used to input and observe production data, to control the system in use.
Humectants are ingredients which keep the moisture level of the tobacco constant thereby ensuring that tobacco products remain at an optimal quality for the smoker. Glycerol and propylene glycol are the most commonly employed humectants.
Component part of cigarette pack, usually cardboard.
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation
An international network of national bodies covering standardisation in all fields except electrical and electronic engineering standards. ISO is the world’s largest non-governmental system for voluntary industrial and technical collaboration at an international level and coordinates the exchange of information on international and national standards.
The ISO’s Technical Committee in charge of the standardisation of terminology and test methods used for unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco products, materials used in the manufacture of tobacco products and tobacco smoke.
The world leader and innovator in providing solutions for adhesive application and fluid control systems. The term often used to refer either to side seam applicators or flavour application equipment.
Clove-flavoured cigarettes. These contain a wide range of exotic flavourings and eugenol which has an anaesthetising effect, allowing for greater and deeper inhalation.
See: Side seam.
Lower ignition propensity cigarettes (LIP)
Cigarettes manufactured to meet regulations which require they pass an extinction propensity performance standard based on standard testing methods such as ASTM E2187 – 04 (“Standard Test Method for Measuring the Ignition Strength of Cigarettes”). Also referred to as Reduced Ignition Propensity or RIP.
Generally stated in cigarettes per minute (cpm) for cigarette makers, metres per minute or filters per minute for filter makers or packs per minute (ppm) for cigarette packers.
In the tobacco industry, the term manufacturer refers to any company that purchases tobacco as a raw material and uses it to produce finished tobacco products, such as cigarettes and chewing tobacco, which are then sold and consumed.
Menthol can be added via the filter, inner foil of the pack or directly into the tobacco. In cases where the ingredient is added via the filter or inner foil of the pack, the ingredient quantity has been calculated from the specified application level of the ingredient to the filter/inner foil of the pack.
Menthol C10H20O 3-hydroxymenthane; peppermint camphor
Colourless crystals obtained mainly from oil of Mentha arvensis or from other mint oils (eg. from Mentha piperita), or prepared synthetically from thymol or turpentine derivatives. Both the dl- and l-menthols may be prepared synthetically; only the l-menthol is found in nature. While both forms smell and taste like mint, the dl-menthol has more of a camphor-like odour.
The process of adding menthol to cut tobacco.
Chemicals that may migrate between packaging materials and finished tobacco products.
Modular flavour dispensing system
A modular system for the on-line application of flavour during production. The user can choose individual components from a range of components to compile a system according to their requirements.
Viscosity is the measure of a substance's resistance to motion under an applied force. The result is typically expressed in centipoise (cP) which is the equivalent of 1 mPa s (millipascal second)
MV Miniaturised Spray Valve
A version of spray valve used for applying acquaous dispersion adhesive to cigarette packs or cartons during the manufacturing process.
Needle and nozzle
Consumable spare part for the Kaymich adhesive applicators. The part of the applicator which applies the adhesive on-line with the needle retracting to allow glue flow or actuating to seal the nozzle against flow on shut down or stop. Manufactured as a matched pair to ensure complete integrity and coated for wear resistance.
NGP New Generation Products
In the tobacco industry this refers specifically to a generation of development products designed to replace the traditional cigarette stick.
In this context, the application of adhesive without the valve having direct contact with the substrate.
In this context, the application of flavour or adhesive onto materials in preparation for their use on the production line.
The active application of materials during the manufacturing process, in context within the production line.
Operating expenditure, the money a company spends on an ongoing, day-to-day basis in order to run a business or system.
Oriental tobacco A type of tobacco characterised by its small leaves and strong aroma. The oriental tobacco plant produces a larger number of leaves than other tobacco types and is primarily grown in the Mediterranean countries of Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavian republic of Macedonia.
One of the main types of blended cigarettes made with a mixture of tobacco varieties. As their name suggests, Oriental-blend cigarettes are made almost exclusively from oriental tobacco.
A measure of paper's permeability; defined as the flow passing through it at an applied pressure.
Perforation of cigarette or tipping paper increases both the air permeability of the paper and the air dulution of the cigarette. Mechanical perforation: the paper is mechanically perforated in the form of round holes, slits or embossing. Electrostatic perforation: the paper is perforated by electrical discharges bringing about irregular holes. Laser perforation: the paper is perforated by a laser beam causing tear-drop shaped holes.
Aromatic materials added to tobacco to balance the natural tobacco taste and to give brands their characteristic flavour and aroma.
The flow of air through cigarette paper, plug wrap (wrapping material for filter tow) or tipping paper. Expressed in Coresta units (CU) defined as the flow (cm3 min-1) passing through a 1 cm2 sample of test material at an applied pressure of 1.00 kPa. Permeability can come from natural porosity or perforation.
A segment of filter material. Also called a plug rod.
A filter making machine. Filters are manufactured in continuous lengths sufficient for 4 or 6 cigarettes. Added filter materials or recessed filter tips are handled in subsequent steps on combiners. The plug rods are transported to the cigarette rod maker in trays or by pneumatic conveyor.
The wrapper in which the filter material, for example cellulose acetate, is contained. Also known as filter paper.
A measure of the extent to which a paper surface will allow the penetration of a gas or liquid through its surface.
Primary manufacturing process
The manufacturing process for preparing the tobacco prior to cigarette making.
The portion of a cigarette plant that deals with the preparation, blending, and flavouring of tobacco prior to cigarette making. This is sometimes called the prefabrication area.
PTFE stands for Polytetrafluoroethylene, a synethtic substance.
A term used to describe the maximum flow rate through a pump at its designed conditions.
PVA is a colourless, odourless, nontoxic, transparent, thermoplastic, water-insoluble resin used as an adhesive.
Tobacco that has been cut into fine strips for use in cigarettes. Also known as cut rag.
Tobacco dust, stems, by-products, etc. that are finely ground, that may be mixed with a cohesive agent, and that are rolled or cast into a flat sheet of uniform thickness and quality. The sheet may be cut into any size shreds. The five basic sheet processes are: dust impingement process, tobacco slurry process, impregnation-of-web process, paper process, and extrusion process. It is alternately known as homogenised tobacco or regenerated tobacco.
Reduced-risk products (RRPs)
We use the term reduced-risk products (RRPs) to refer to products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking.
See: Foil re-winder.
Refers to an un-scheduled break in the formation of the cigarette or filter rod resulting in downtime and wastage.
Secondary manufacturing process
The process of producing a cigarette rod, combining it with a filter and packing to produce usually cartons or cases of cigarettes. The filter manufacturing department is often included in this definition.
SMD Secondary Manufacturing Department
The department housing the cigarette manufacturing process within a factory.
Equipment used to remove unaligned pieces of tobacco (rod) from the seam or overlap of the cigarette paper before the adhesive is applied and the rod formed. This prevents shorts of tobacco from compromising the seam.
Shorts/Tobacco shorts Short filler: relatively small pieces of leaf that are used in making cigarettes or cigars.
Side seam/Cigarette side seam
The overlap of the cigarette paper encasing the tobacco rod, combined with glue to bond the two sides of paper together to form the rod. See also: Lap/Lap seam.
Usually a fast setting emulsion based product (glue) used to secure the overlap of the cigarette paper to form the cigarette rod.
In context, cigarettes and filters are manufactured as a rod on machines which extrude either a single rod (single track) or two rods (twin track).
Solvents are used to dissolve and dilute other ingredients.
Adhesive gun that combines adhesive with pressurised air to apply the adhesive in its atomised form. See also: Spray valve.
Used to apply an adhesive or liquid under pressure onto another surface.
In this context, the chamber between the hopper and the garniture on the cigarette maker. The Suction Chamber is where the tobacco rod is formed and transported to the garniture where it is combined with paper and glue to form a rod.
Refers to a single line of adhesive applied in a circular pattern to give a wide coverage of adhesive.
Synthetic resin emulsion
Synthetic resins are chemically synthesised materials with properties similar to natural plant resins. They are viscous liquids capable of hardening permanently.
The degree of surface stickiness of the adhesive; influences the strength of the bond between wetted surfaces.
Tipping paper and tipping paper inks
The filter and tobacco rod are held together by tipping paper, often with an imitation cork pattern printed in inks onto it. This paper may also have holes in it to admit air.
A sub-division of a tobacco type: based on the position of the leaf on the stalk of the tobacco plant, the ripeness, colour, texture, and quality of the leaf.
The rod of tobacco to which the filter is attached. At the beginning of the process one long tobacco rod is produced and it is later cut into cigarette-sized rods.
A subdivision of tobacco based mainly on the method of curing but also on agricultural practices, agronomy and strain of plant. There are a number of predominant tobacco types, each with distinctive smoking characteristics, e.g. air-cured, fire-cured, flue-cured and sun-cured.
Volatile aromatic flavours applied to cut tobacco after final drying, usually applied in the cooler. See also: Casing.
Fibre manufactured from cellulose acetate used to create cigarette filters.
The retention of filter tow material within the plug or filter rod, to prevent accidental inhalation by the user. See also: Anchor line.
See: Tow retention.
See: Single track.
UFA Universal Flavour Applicator.
Second generation flavour application device manufactured by C.B. Kaymich & Co. Limited.
Vaping / Vaper
Using an e-cigarette is sometimes known as ‘vaping’ and the user as a ‘vaper’ (analogous to ‘smoking’ and ‘smoker’).
Ventilation is defined as the amount of air which enters the cigarette by means other than through the lit end of the cigarette. Ventilation is normally measured and expressed as a percentage of the total volume drawn through the unlit cigarette. Tobacco rod ventilation refers to the air entering through the cigarette paper. Filter/tip ventilation refers to the amount of air entering through the tipping/plugwrap combination. Filter ventilation is an important cigarette design tool that contributes to an overall reduction in measured vapour and particulate phase yields of lower ISO yield products.
The Venturi Effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted area.
Viscosity is a physical property of fluids. It shows resistance to flow.
In context, wetted parts are those parts of the delivery system in direct contact with the fluid materials it is used to apply.